Details: How does Polygon ZKP implement Zero-knowledge proof (ZKP) to improve users’ privacy?
With the rise of information capitalism, it is particularly important to find solutions that can ensure user information privacy and security. The increasing popularity of free internet applications used by billions of people worldwide has led to the majority of user information and data being controlled by large technology companies, often leading to the abuse of user privacy. Blockchain technologies such as Ethereum were created to return control to users, who also own user data. However, apart from pseudo anonymity, it does not have many methods to protect user privacy.
For example, if a user purchases something from someone using their wallet address, then their wallet address is now known to that person, and they will know what the user has done in the past and future, including what else they have bought or how much money they have bought, creating a real privacy issue for real-world purchases.
In order to solve this problem, Ethereum and various protocols are seeking to implement Zero-knowledge proof (ZKP) to improve users’ privacy. And Polygon zkEVM has emerged in the current trend of the times!
What is Zero-knowledge proof (ZKP)?
Zero-knowledge proof allows users to prove that they know or have information without disclosing information. The “prover” will use the information input from a certain system to create a proof, while the “verifier” will verify the calculation results of the proof, but cannot know the specific content of the information. Most importantly, Zero-knowledge proof can verify the validity of a data set and protect data privacy at the same time.
Why use Zero-knowledge proof technology to build a network?
Zero knowledge technology allows developers to not only take advantage of the security of underlying blockchains such as Ethereum, but also improve the transaction throughput and speed for dApp, and at the same time put users’ personal information down the chain to protect users’ privacy. The transaction will be packaged and uploaded onto the chain to reduce the usage cost for end users. Ultimately, the project can leverage these features to create advanced dApps that not only compete with Web2 systems in performance, but also maintain the advantages of Web3 decentralization.
What is Polygon zkEVM?
Polygon zkEVM is a decentralized Ethereum layer 2 scalability solution, which uses encryption Zero-knowledge proof to provide effectiveness and fast termination for off chain transaction computing (also known as ZK Rollup).
ZK Rollup transparently executes the smart contract by issuing zero knowledge validity proof, while maintaining the opcode compatibility with Ethereum virtual machine.
Since Ethereum is subject to the Trilemma of DLT (distributed ledger technology), it cannot expand beyond its transaction threshold without sacrificing decentralization or security. This is where Polygon zkEVM comes into play.
Polygon zkEVM is a virtual machine, which aims to simulate Ethereum virtual machine (EVM) by re creating all existing EVM operation codes, transparently deploy existing Ethereum smart contracts, and exponentially improve Ethereum scalability and trading volume per second (TPS).
In order to prove the correctness of off chain computing, Polygon zkEVM uses verifiable Zero-knowledge proof as the validity proof. Although the second layer of Zero-knowledge proof provides verification and finality for off chain transactions based on complex polynomial calculation, the validity proof is fast and easy to verify.
As a state machine, zkEVM executes state changes from the execution of the Ethereum Layer 2 transaction sent to the network by the user, and then generates a validity certificate to prove the correctness of the state change calculation executed under the chain.
Although adopting this revolutionary design method was a difficult decision, the goal was to minimize friction between users and developers when using the solution. This is a way to recreate all EVM opcodes to transparently deploy existing Ethereum smart contracts.
Polygon zkEVM is a new technology and the first zero knowledge extension solution equivalent to EVM, where existing smart contracts, developer tools, and wallets can work seamlessly. Polygon zkEVM uses Zero-knowledge proof to reduce transaction costs and improve throughput, while inheriting the security of Ethereum.
The transactions in the zkEVM network (L2) are compiled into batches, and then these batches are sorted in the Ethereum smart contract. Then their state transitions are proved and verified on Ethereum, reaching a trusted state.
ZkEVM has multiple operation layers:
Network layer: The place where Sequencers and Aggregators run.
ROM layer: zkEVM uses a new language called zkASM to implement EVM, making EVM state transactions provable.
Hardware layer: zkEVM uses a new language called PIL to create polynomial identities and constraints to ensure the integrity and good execution of zkASM ROM.
L1 Ethereum smart contract: bridge assets between networks and implement PoE (efficiency proof) consensus to ensure correct state transition of batches.
During the security review, the Hexens team covered the most critical attack areas, including smart contracts, PIL hardware, and unexpected differences between zkASM ROMs, EVMs, and zkEVMs.
Due to its complexity and composability, censorship requires extensive professional knowledge and thinking in different fields of cybersecurity. The final conclusion is that overall security and code quality are at a high level.
Why deploy ZKP on the Coin Security Chain?
Polygon zkEVM is the first zero knowledge expansion solution compatible with Ethereum virtual machines, integrating smart contracts and developer tools. As a Layer 2 protocol, Polygon is faster and more scalable than Ethereum; However, the introduction of zkEVM functionality will definitely make it more scalable.
The launch of zkEVM tool is an important milestone, which will definitely promote Polygon to take the lead in the competition of the top tier 2 protocol of Ethereum blockchain. From Optimism to Arbitrum, and more recently to Cobarium and Base of Coinbase Exchange, Polygon will now become the first L2 to launch zkEVM tools in encrypted systems.
Relatively, zkEVM has not yet achieved sufficient development on the coin security chain, and the market is relatively empty. At the same time, the development of ZKP requires users to continuously trade to verify its effectiveness and stability, so the Polygon team deployed ZKP on the top of Coin Security Chain, aiming to fill the temporary shortcomings of Coin Security Chain in zkEVM.
The combination of Zero-knowledge proof with the underlying blockchain and decentralized network is bound to promote the transformation of the blockchain industry. Polygon zkEVM will develop applications with high scalability and cost-effectiveness, while protecting user privacy. With the continuous development of the blockchain industry, Polygon zkEVM is bound to gain the favor of more individual users and enterprises.